Pharmacodynamic Expertise

The identification of clinical effective drug candidates in the early clinical trial conduct is the key benefit of biomarkers. Due to changes in biomarker patterns it is possible to distinguish between effective and ineffective drug therapy, which enables “go/no-go” decisions for the clinical drug development programmes of our clients combined with time and cost savings. CRS has experience in the implementation and analysis of diverse biological markers in various areas including Hormones, Cardiovascular, CNS, Immunology, Lipids, Hemostasis and Haematology. A large panel of techniques to measure biomarkers/PD-parameters is built up continuously by CRS. In the following an exemplary list of techniques is shown. For further information, please feel free to contact CRS directly.



  • Venous occlusion plethysmography 
  • Oszillography
  • Laser capillar microscopy
  • Light reflex rheography
  • Color duplex sonography
  • Treadmill ergometry


  • Radiologic diagnostic supported by Neuroradiology and MRT
  • Intravascular ultrasound and pressure measurements
  • Quantitative EEG with spectral analysis 
  • Polysomnography (Sleep EEG)
  • Provoked EEG (flash light)
  • Cognitive test battery (Psychomotor performance, Attention & vigilance, short/ long term memory testing, Subjective evaluation)
  • Anxiety models
  • Saccadic eye movement 
  • Body sway
  • Imaging : SPECT (CBF), PET (FDG, C11), fMRI
  • Tremor measurement
  • TOF-watch (acceleromyographic monitoring of neuromuscular blockades)
  • Psychometric testing
  • Cognition & Vigilance testing (Vienna Determination Test System, CDR), validated questionnaries, Visual Analogue Scales, computerized pupillometry – static and dynamic)
  • Flicker testing
  • Skin perfusion: Laser Scanner Doppler (LSD)
  • Hyperfused area skin surface
  • Skin colorimetry: Chromametry
  • Psoriasis Skin Severity Index (PASI)
  • Overall Lesion Severity (OLS)
  • Irritation, sensitisation of topicals & transdermal application systems
  • Phototox/Photo allergenicity
  • Repeat open application and irriation test
  • Washing test
  • Disease severity scoring
  • Quality of life assessments
  • Tewameter
  • Corneometer
  • Chronameter Mexameter
  • Cutometer
  • Sebumeter
  • Skin pH-metry
  • Primos OCT (optical coherence tomography)
  • TrichoScan
  • Canfield-Technique
  • Glucose clamp technique
  • Oral glucose tolerance test
  • Calorimetry
  • Bioelectrical Impedance analysis
  • Ad libitum caloric intake
  • Waist circumference
  • Weight
  • 24h oesophageal and gastric pH recording
  • Oesophageal, colic and rectal manometric recording of pressure and motility
  • Oesophageal, gastric, colic and rectal tone and sensitivity (barostat) recording
  • Pentagastrine test
  • Gastric emptying (SPECT)
  • Continuous telemetric core body temperature
  • Gastroscopy
  • ERCP – endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreaticography
  • Endosonography (esophagus, stomach, biliar ductus, pancreas, colon, rectum)
  • Video capsule endoscopy
  • Sonography and Doppler sonography of abdomen
  • Functional tests, e.g.
  • Breath test
  • pH-metry (24h oesophageal and gastric pH recording)
Medical Digitial Imaging
  • PET (FDG, C11)
  • fMRI
  • Echo doppler
  • Stereotaxic Biopsy
Ophthalmology examinations
  • Visual acuity
  • Electrooculogram
  • Electroretinogram (incl. multifocal ERG)
  • Visual evoked potentials
  • Humphrey visual field
  • Farnsworth-100 Hue colour test
  • Slit lamp test
  • Photostress test
  • Pupil size
  • Saccadic eye movement
  • Tonometry
  • Amsler grid
  • Spectral domain (SD-) optical coherence tomography (OCT)
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM)
  • Endothelial cell measurements of cornea
  • BiometryIntraocular lens (IOL)-Master
  • Cornea topography
  • Pachymetry
  • Stereometric examination of optic nerve and papillar HRT and OCT
  • Schirmer-Test and BUT (lacrimation tests)
  • Fluorescence-angiography
  • Indocyanin-angiography
  • Fundusphotography
  • SL-Photography
  • Dark adaptation
  • „Harmswand“- and other strabological examinations
  • Perfused retina isolate for toxicity measurements
Renal function assessment
  • Renal plasma flow rate
  • Glomerular filtration flow rate
  • Urinary output
  • Free water clearance
  • Urinary sodium excretion
  • Renal tubular function (lithium clearance)
  • Osmolality
Respiratory function tests
  • Spirometry (FEV, PEV, PEFT) including reversibility testing
  • Allergen challenge
  • Skin prick test
  • Pulmonary function testing
  • Body plethysmography
  • Spiroergometry
  • Induced sputum, nasal provocation & lavage